Human tear fluid analysis for clinical applications: progress and prospects

Sphurti S. Adigal, Alisha Rizvi, Nidheesh V. Rayaroth, Reena V. John, Ajayakumar Barik, Sulatha Bhandari, Sajan D. George, Jijo Lukose, Vasudevan B. Kartha, Santhosh Chidangil

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Human blood and saliva are increasingly under investigation for the detection of biomarkers for early diagnosis of non-communicable (e.g.cancers) and communicable diseases like COVID-19. Exploring the potential application of human tears, an easily accessible body fluid, for the diagnosis of various diseases is the need of the hour. Areas covered: This review deals with a comprehensive account of applications of tear analysis using different techniques, their comparison and overall progress achieved till now. The techniques used for tear fluid analysis are HPLC/UPLC/SDS-PAGE, CE, etc., together with ELISA, Mass Spectrometry, etc. But, with advances in instrumentation and data processing methods, it has become easy to couple the various separation methods with highly sensitive optical techniques for the analysis of body fluids. Expert opinion: Tear analysis can provide valuable information about the health condition of the eyes since it contains several molecular constituents, and their relative concentrations may alter under abnormal conditions. Tear analysis has the advantage that it is totally non-invasive. This study recommends tear fluid as a reliable clinical sample to be probed by highly sensitive optical techniques to diagnose different health conditions, with special emphasis on eye diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)767-787
Number of pages21
JournalExpert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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