Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease: An Update on Diagnosis and Management

Ankur Gupta, Shankar Prasad Nagaraju, Mohan V. Bhojaraja, Shilna Muttickal Swaminathan, Pooja Basthi Mohan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Hypertension (HTN) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are pathophysiologic states that are intimately related, such that long-term HTN can lead to poor kidney function, and renal function decline can lead to worsening blood pressure (BP) control. HTN in CKD is caused by an interplay of factors, including salt and water retention, with extracellular volume expansion, sympathetic nervous system overactivity, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation, and endothelial dysfunction. BP variability in the CKD population is significant, however, and thus requires close monitoring for appropriate management. With accumulating evidence, the diagnosis as well as management of HTN in CKD has been evolving in the last decade. In this comprehensive review based on current evidence and recommendations, we summarize the basics of pathophysiology, BP variability, diagnosis, and management of HTN in CKD with an emphasis on special populations with CKD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)237-244
Number of pages8
JournalSouthern Medical Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 01-02-2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)


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