In vitro iontophoretic transport of ketorolac: Synthetic membrane as a barrier

Sandip B. Tiwari, N. Udupa

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3 Citations (Scopus)


The effect of different factors on the iontophoretic transport of ketorolac was analyzed. In vitro experiments were performed in a diffusion cell with a cellulose membrane as a barrier. The results indicated that an increase in current density or drug concentration enhanced the transmembrane permeation of the drug. The presence of extraneous ions (such as NaCl) or an increase in viscosity of the donor medium slowed down the iontophoretic transport of the drug. The pH does not seem to be an important factor determining iontophoretic transport of ketorolac as statistically insignificant difference was observed in flux at pH 5.6, 7.2, and 8. Also, the relative importance of the transport contributions involved in iontophoresis, namely diffusive iontophoretic and electro-osmotic fluxes, was investigated using glucose as a nonionizable drug. The results indicated that the total flux of ketorolac is a result of two contributions: passive diffusion and iontophoretic flux. The contribution of electro-osmosis appears to be negligible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)161-168
Number of pages8
JournalDrug Delivery: Journal of Delivery and Targeting of Therapeutic Agents
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 07-2003

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology


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