Oral manifestations in HIV infections are numerous and some of these are acknowledged as being of great importance in the early diagnosis of the disease. Many HIV-associated oral infections occur early in HIV disease, not infrequently as the presenting sign or symptom. Thus, early detection of the associated oral opportunistic infections should, in many cases, result in earlier diagnosis of HIV infection. Cytology, a simple, painless, and inexpensive method, has become a preferred method and was used in our study for early diagnosis of certain lesions. To determine the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on incidence rate of opportunistic infections among HIV-positive adults in a teaching hospital in India, a prospective study was conducted and the required sample size was 40. Study participants were selected randomly from the outpatient department of an HIV clinic who were currently on for antiretroviral therapy (ART). Data on age, gender, form of contagion, antiretroviral therapy at the time of review, number of CD4 lymphocytes per milliliter, and viral load were collected. Oral cytologic investigation was carried out and then stained for histopathological examination. A total of 40 individuals were examined and the incidence of opportunistic infections was 66.7% in individuals with CD4 counts less than 200, 55.6% in individuals with CD4 counts of 200 to 499, and 40.0% in individuals with CD4 counts more than 500. The incidence of opportunistic infection was higher in individuals with low CD4 counts in spite of being on ART.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)309-311
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 01-05-2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology
  • Dermatology
  • Infectious Diseases


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