Integrative network pharmacology of moringa oleifera combined with gemcitabine against pancreatic cancer

Nursaffa Alisya Sahruddin, Zhong Sun, Norsyasya Adriana Rosdi, Sudha Warrier, Karuppiah Thilakavathy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Gemcitabine (GEM) is the first-line chemotherapy drug for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Moringa oleifera (MO) exhibited various biological activities, including anticancer effects. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of their combination against pancreatic cancer has not yet been explored. This study evaluates the effect of MO and GEM against pancreatic cancer through network pharmacology. TCMSP, TCMID, and PubMed were used to identify and screen MO bioactive compounds. MO and GEM genes were predicted through DGIdb, CTD, and DrugBank. Pancreatic cancer genes were retrieved from OMIM and MalaCards. Protein–protein interaction (PPI) and compound-target-pathway network were established via STRING and Cytoscape. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis were conducted using DAVID Bioinformatic Tools. Catechin, kaempferol, quercetin, and epicatechin that met the drug screening requirements, and three additional compounds, glucomoringin, glucoraphanin, and moringinine, were identified as bioactive compounds in MO. Catechin was found to be the main hub compound in MO. TP53, AKT1, VEGFA, and CCND1 from PPI network were discovered as hub genes to have biological importance in pancreatic cancer. GO and pathway analysis revealed that MO and GEM combination was mainly associated with cancer, including pancreatic cancer, through regulation of apoptosis. Combination therapy between MO and GEM might provide insight in pancreatic cancer treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1742
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 10-2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology


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