Interplay between adenosine receptor antagonist and cyclooxygenase inhibitor in haloperidol-induced extrapyramidal effects in mice

Devinder Arora, Jayesh Mudgal, Madhavan Nampoothiri, Sanchari Basu Mallik, Manas Kinra, Susan Hall, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Gary D. Grant, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao

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2 Citations (Scopus)


Antipsychotic drugs are the mainstay of psychotic disorders. The ‘typical’ antipsychotic agents are commonly employed for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, though at an expense of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). In the present study, we employed haloperidol (HP)-induced catalepsy model in mice to evaluate the role of adenosine receptor antagonist and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme inhibitor in the amelioration of EPS. HP produced a full blown catalepsy, akinesia and a significant impairment in locomotion and antioxidant status. Pre-treatment with COX inhibitor; naproxen (NPx) and adenosine receptor antagonist; caffeine (CAF), showed a significant impact on HP-induced cataleptic symptoms. Adenosine exerts pivotal control on dopaminergic receptors and is also involved in receptor internalization and recycling. On the other hand, prostaglandins (PGs) are implicated as neuro-inflammatory molecules released due to microglial activation in both Parkinson’s disease (PD) and antipsychotics-induced EPS. The involvement of these neuroeffector molecules has led to the possibility of use of CAF and COX inhibitors as therapeutic approaches to reduce the EPS burden of antipsychotic drugs. Both these pathways seem to be interlinked to each other, where adenosine modulates the formation of PGs through transcriptional modulation of COXs. We observed an additive effect with combined treatment of NPx and CAF against HP-induced movement disorder. These effects lead us to propose that neuromodulatory pathways of dopaminergic circuitry need to be explored for further understanding and utilizing the full therapeutic potential of antipsychotic agents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalMetabolic Brain Disease
Publication statusPublished - 01-08-2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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