Kannada Translation and Validation of the ESAS-r Renal for Symptom Burden Survey in Patients with End-Stage Kidney Disease

Bharathi Naik, Shankar Prasad Nagaraju, Vasudeva Guddattu, Naveen Salins, Ravindra Prabhu, Anuja Damani, Prathvi Naik, Krithika S. Rao, Indu Ramachandra Rao, Pankaj Singhai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is a life-limiting illness that leads to significant health-related suffering for the patients and their caregivers. Moreover, disease-directed options such as dialysis and renal transplant might not be universally accessible. Inadequate assessment and management of symptoms often lead to diminished quality of life. For evaluating symptoms and their associated distress, various tools have been identified. However, these are not available for the native Kannada-speaking population for assessing ESKD symptom burden. In this study, we determined the reliability and validity of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System Revised Renal (ESAS-r: Renal) in Kannada-speaking ESKD patients. Materials and Methods: ESAS-r: Renal English version was translated into Kannada using the forward and backward method. The translated version was endorsed by Nephrology, Palliative care, Dialysis technology and Nursing experts. As a pilot study, 12 ESKD patients evaluated the content of the questionnaires for appropriateness and relevance. The ESAS-r: Renal Kannada version was validated by administering this tool to 45 patients twice a fortnight. Result: The translated ESAS-r: Renal Kannada version questionnaire had an acceptable face and content validity. Experts’ opinion was assessed by content validity ratio (CVR), and the value of CVR of ESAS-r: Renal Kannada version was-‘1’-. Internal consistency of the tool was assessed among Kannada-speaking ESKD patients; its Cronbach’s α was 0.785, and test-retest validity was 0.896. Conclusion: The validated Kannada version of ESAS-r: Renal was reliable and valid for assessing symptom burden in ESKD patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)195-199
Number of pages5
JournalIndian Journal of Palliative Care
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 04-2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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