Ketogenic Diets Hold Therapeutic Potential Against Periodontal Inflammation

Shaswata Karmakar, Shivaprasad, Ramya Arangaraju, Baishakhi Modak, Shashikiran Shanmugasundaram

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose of Review: Periodontitis, one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, is caused by the accumulation of dysbiotic microbial biofilm on the teeth leading to chronic inflammation of the tissues surrounding the teeth. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, chronic stress, and smoking are some of the risk factors for the disease. A high-carbohydrate diet also increases the risk of periodontal inflammation. Modifying diet and nutrition could serve as a preventive and therapeutic tool to target multiple risk factors simultaneously. Recent Findings: Emerging evidence shows that the ketogenic diet induces hormetic stress and switches on various cell-protective anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms. The ketogenic diet also improves mitochondrial function, DNA repair, and autophagy. The diet can effectively treat periodontitis risk factors such as T2DM and obesity. By restricting carbohydrates, the diet improves glycaemic control in T2DM patients and can effectively produce fat loss and reduce BMI (body-mass index) in obese patients. Poor long-term compliance and high cost are the drawbacks of the diet and the potential of the diet to increase cardiovascular disease risk needs further investigation. Summary: Taken together, ketogenic diets, through various mechanisms reduce inflammation, mitigate oxidative stress, improve metabolic health, and can be used as a therapeutic tool to treat periodontal inflammation. Since robust scientific evidence for the ketogenic diet is currently scarce, future research should study the diet's efficacy, effectiveness, and safety in managing periodontal inflammation.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCurrent Oral Health Reports
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Immunology and Microbiology (miscellaneous)

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