Leader–Follower-Based Distributed Secondary Voltage Control for a Stand-alone PV and Wind-Integrated DC Microgrid System with EVs

K. M. Bhargavi, N. S. Jayalakshmi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


In this article, a distributed first-order multi-agent system framework is introduced for power management in a direct current (DC) microgrid (MG) with power electronic converters and interfaced distributed energy resources. Since the heterogeneous microgrid network has volatile characteristics due to their uncertainty and natural intermittency, it is necessary to ensure the balanced power generation and load demand through proper power management control strategies. Thus, the main purpose of this article is to design a first-order multi-agent system-based cooperative control framework to achieve the coordinated power sharing in the microgrids through effective utilization of electric vehicles. This article proposes the V–P droop-based leader–follower consensus control for the battery storage unit using distributed cooperative control architecture. In this, the control objectives can be achieved through primary and secondary control layers. The primary level uses voltage power reference-based droop control strategy, which allots load component to the batteries. Secondary level uses linear multi-agent system-based consensus protocol to restore the DC bus voltage and to achieve balanced power sharing among the battery energy storage units (BESUs). Furthermore, communication delays are explicitly considered in the analysis. The proposed control method is compared with an existing leaderless approach, and it is found that the proposed scheme provides excellent robust and faster performance. The effectiveness of the implemented control law for off-grid DC MG system is validated by MATLAB/Simulink platform using simulation case studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)233-246
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 01-02-2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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