Management Guidelines for Infection After ACL Reconstruction: Expert Opinion Statement Based on the Modified Delphi Survey of Indian Arthroscopy Surgeons

I. Geethan, Raju Easwaran, Santhosh Sahanand, Arumugam Sivaraman, Arun Gupta, Ashish Devgan, S. Ashok, V. B. Bhasin, Clement Joseph, Deepak Chaudhary, Dinshaw N. Pardiwala, P. Gopinathan, John Thayyil John, J. Maheshwari, Manabendra Nath Basumallick, Nicholas Antao, Nishith Shah, Palanivel Rajan, Parag Sancheti, Paresh Chandra DeyPrakash Ayyadurai, Prateek Kr Gupta, K. Raghuveer Reddy, Ravi Gupta, Ravi Mittal, Sachin Tapasvi, Schiller Thekekara Jos, Skand Sinha, S. R. Sundararajan, Vinod Kumar, Vivek Pandey, David V. Rajan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Aim: Infection after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, though rare, is a potentially devastating complication and the evidence-based recommendation on the various topics in its management is limited. The purpose of this study was to develop recommendations for the prevention and management of infections in ACL reconstruction surgery by performing a structured expert consensus survey using Delphi methodology. Materials and Methods: 22 topics of relevance in the prevention and management of infection following ACL reconstruction were chosen from an extensive literature review. 30 panelists were requested to respond to a three-round survey, with feedback, to develop a consensus statement on the topics. Results: Consensus statements could be prepared in eleven out of twenty-two topics including: the graft is retained at the first arthroscopic debridement, the graft is removed when repeated debridement are needed, and revision ACL reconstruction is needed only if the patient develops instability. Concurrence could be obtained in the topics including: longer duration of antibiotics is needed in immunocompromised patients, soaking graft in antibiotic solution reduces infection risk, and knee swelling without warmth does not suggest infection. Conclusions: A proper skin preparation, a longer course of antibiotics in immunocompromised patients, and soaking the graft in antibiotics reduces the risk of infection. In case of infection, a healthy-looking graft must be retained at the first debridement and if the graft must be removed, revision ACL reconstruction is advised only if the patient develops instability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)342-351
Number of pages10
JournalIndian Journal of Orthopaedics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 04-2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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