Management of the knee problems in spastic cerebral palsy

Dhiren Ganjwala, Hitesh Shah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Two common knee problems in cerebral palsy are increased knee flexion during stance phase and reduced knee flexion during the swing phase of gait. We reviewed the recent literature and based on that, we formed this review. Hamstring spasticity, quadriceps weakness, soleus weakness, and lever-arm dysfunction are few factors which lead to increased knee flexion during stance phase. Rectus spasticity diminishes knee flexion in the swing. Resulting gait-stiff knee gait interferes with ground clearance. Both gait patterns result into esthetically poor gait and increased energy consumption. Knee flexion gait may lead to pain in the knee. Natural history of knee flexion gait suggests deterioration over time. In the early stage, these gait abnormalities are managed by nonoperative treatment. Cases in which nonoperative measures fail or advance cases need surgical treatment. Various variables which are taken into consideration before selecting a particular treatment option are described. We also present an algorithm for decision-making. Nonsurgical options and surgical procedures are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-62
Number of pages10
JournalIndian Journal of Orthopaedics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 01-01-2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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