Twenty five percent of pregnant women have some degree of vaginal bleeding during the first trimester, and about 50% of those pregnancies end in spontaneous abortion (SA) because the fetus is not developing typically. As studies have reported that inadequacies of trace metals such as Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Magnesium (Mg) can predispose to various adverse pregnancy outcomes (PO); multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplementations are given without justifying their deficiency and toxicities on the fetus. Earlier studies on effects of MMN supplementations during pregnancy have not considered the need, duration, dose, and time of initiation of supplementations leading to inconclusive results. So, there is a need to optimize this to prevent their abuse and side effects. This study can help in establishing critical cut-offs of these minerals in maternal serum that can forecast future pregnancy outcomes. Study measured the serum Zn, Cu, Mg, and Fe in pregnant women who presented with (n = 80) and without (n = 100) SA at 5–2 weeks of pregnancy using iron -ferrozine method, magnesium-calmagite method, zinc reaction with nitro-PAPS, copper reaction with Di-Br- PAESA methods, respectively. Data analyzed using the student t test and cutoff value was established using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) by SPSS software. Maternal serum Cu, Mg, Fe, and Zn levels measured were significantly lower in SA as compared to that of controls (p < 0.005) (Fig. 1) and maternal age and Body mass index were not statistically significant different among study group. Maternal serum Cu, Mg, Zn and Iron (Fe) measured in 5–12 weeks of pregnancy has the potential to forecast future occurrence of SA. The study has been registered under “The Clinical Trials Registry- India (CTRI),” -REF/2020/01/030393.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)128-131
Number of pages4
JournalIndian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 01-2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Biochemistry


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