Mechanical Properties of Post-Cured Eggshell-Filled Glass-Fibre-Reinforced Polymer Composites

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Eggshells are a potentially polluting industrial waste that are disposed of as landfill which has proven to be hazardous to the environment. The usage of chicken eggshells as a biofiller for polymer matrix composites instead of its disposal as landfill has proven advantageous in various studies. On the other hand, using eggshells as a filler material to replace inorganic calcium carbonate usage would be another environment friendly act. The present study is focused on studying the effects of eggshell filler addition and post-curing on polymer composites which could be utilised for domestic applications. Herein, uncarbonised and carbonised eggshell filler material were processed from waste eggshells. Hybridisation of the carbonised and uncarbonised eggshell filler was carried out. All three variants of eggshell fillers (10 wt.%) were used in the fabrication of composites. A hand lay-up technique was employed in the fabrication of unfilled composites along with three variants of filled composites, namely, uncarbonised, carbonised, and hybrid eggshell filled composites. The fabricated and cured composites were further subjected to post-curing at a temperature of 60 °C for a period of 2 h. All four variants of post-cured composites were then subjected to mechanical testing according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. The tests revealed that all three variants of filled composites possess better mechanical properties in comparison with unfilled composites. Further, in comparison with unfilled composites, the carbonised eggshell filled composites showcased 42% and 49% improvement in flexural and tensile properties, respectively. The modes of failure of the specimens were observed and tabulated. SEM imaging revealed that the eggshell filler contributed to the strengths of the composites by means of arresting and deviating cracks. It was also observed that the post-cured specimens displayed improved properties when compared with our previous studies on non-post-cured specimens. In summary, the study showcased the benefits of eggshell filler addition and the post-curing of polymer composites.

Original languageEnglish
Article number49
JournalJournal of Composites Science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 02-2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)


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