Purpose of Review: Microbial infections in chronic wounds can often lead to lower-limb amputation, decrease in quality of life, and increase in mortality rate, and there is an unmet need to distinguish between pathogens and colonisers in these chronic wounds. Hence, identifying the composition of healthy skin microbiota, microbes associated with chronic wound and healing processes, and microbial interactions and host response in healing wounds vs. non-healing wounds can help us in formulating innovative individual-centric treatment protocols. Recent Findings: This review highlights various metabolites and biomarkers produced by microbes that have been identified to modulate these interactions, particularly those involved in host–microbe and microbe–microbe communication. Further, considering that many skin commensals demonstrate contextual pathogenicity, we provide insights into promising initiatives in the wound microbiome research. Summary: The skin microbiome is highly diverse and variable, and considering its importance remains to be a hotspot of medical investigations and research to enable us to prevent and treat skin disorders and chronic wound infections. This is especially relevant now considering that non-healing and chronic wounds are highly prevalent, generally affecting lower extremities as seen in diabetic foot ulcers, venous leg ulcers, and pressure ulcers. Pathogenic bacteria are purported to have a key role in deferring healing of wounds. However, the role of skin microflora in wound progression has been a subject of debate. In this review, we discuss biomarkers associated with chronic wound microenvironment along with the relevance of skin microflora and their metabolites in determining the chronicity of wounds.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-31
Number of pages11
JournalCurrent Clinical Microbiology Reports
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 09-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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