Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation: a case series highlighting phenotypic and genotypic diversity in 20 Indian families

Haseena Sait, Somya Srivastava, Manmohan Pandey, Deepak Ravichandran, Anju Shukla, Kausik Mandal, Deepti Saxena, Arya Shambhavi, Purvi Majethia, Lakshmi Priya Rao, Suvasini Sharma, Shubha R. Phadke, Amita Moirangthem

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is an umbrella term encompassing various inherited neurological disorders characterised by abnormal iron accumulation in basal ganglia. We aimed to study the clinical, radiological and molecular spectrum of disorders with NBIA. All molecular-proven cases of NBIA presented in the last 5 years at 2 tertiary care genetic centres were compiled. Demographic details and clinical and neuroimaging findings were collated. We describe 27 individuals from 20 unrelated Indian families with causative variants in 5 NBIA-associated genes. PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) was the most common, observed in 13 individuals from 9 families. They mainly presented in infancy with neuroregression and hypotonia. A recurrent pathogenic variant in COASY was observed in two neonates with prenatal-onset severe neurodegeneration. Pathogenic bi-allelic variants in PANK2, FA2H and C19ORF12 genes were observed in the rest, and these individuals presented in late childhood and adolescence with gait abnormalities and extrapyramidal symptoms. No intrafamilial and interfamilial variability were observed. Iron deposition on neuroimaging was seen in only 6/17 (35.3%) patients. A total of 22 causative variants across 5 genes were detected including a multiexonic duplication in PLA2G6. The variants c.1799G > A and c.2370 T > G in PLA2G6 were observed in three unrelated families. In silico assessments of 8 amongst 9 novel variants were also performed. We present a comprehensive compilation of the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of various subtypes of NBIA from the Indian subcontinent. Clinical presentation of NBIAs is varied and not restricted to extrapyramidal symptoms or iron accumulation on neuroimaging.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113-127
Number of pages15
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 04-2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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