Numerical investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of naca 23112 using passive flow control technique–gurney flaps

Vandan Chinnappa, G. Srinivas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Since its inception in the early 1970s by Daniel Gurney, the Gurney flaps have proven to be an effective means of enhancing the aerodynamic performance of an airfoil. Current applications of Gurney flaps include wind turbine blades, race car spoilers, helicopter rotors, and certain high-lift devices. This study compares the influence of Gurney flaps on flow characteristics and the effects of design parameters of the flap, namely the length and position of the flap on a NACA 23,112 airfoil. A review of the studies conducted so far has shown that studies have been carried out on a select few airfoils only and mainly studied the effects of variation of only one of the characteristics, like length, position, or angle. This paper has been crried out to find the optimum balance between these design parameters. Additionally, this paper aims to investigate the accuracy and feasibility of numerical investigation methods to estimate the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils and wings compared to conventional techniques like wind tunnel testing. This cost-effective computation method is less susceptible to external factors like weather changes. The CFD process also allows testing at conditions that might otherwise be impractical to test in wind tunnels. The workflow comprised a review of literature, validation of solver settings, preparation and testing of the model, extraction of results and analysis of results. Autodesk Fusion360 and Ansys Workbench 22R1 were used to make and test the models. The airfoil designs were tested at Re = 2 × 106, at angles of attack varying from 0° to 15°. The GF height ranged from 1% to 3% chord and placed at 95% to 100% chord. A reliable methodology has been arrived at and validated by implementing the best practices prescribed for CFD. The k- (Formula presented.) SST turbulence model, along with second-order spatial discretization, was used. Coefficients of lift and drag were considered the study parameters. Gurney flaps were found to increase the performance of the airfoil, and better results were obtained at higher angles of attack. The modified designs noted the separation point further downstream than the baseline model. Overall, the presence of Gurney flaps proved beneficial over the baseline model.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2222566
JournalCogent Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Science(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Engineering(all)


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