"on-Water" Reaction of (Thio)isocyanate: A Sustainable Process for the Synthesis of Unsymmetrical (Thio)ureas

Amit Dattatray Karche, Prabakaran Kamalakannan, Rajendra Powar, Gautham G. Shenoy, Kamlesh J. Padiya

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


We describe a facile, sustainable, and chemoselective process for the synthesis of unsymmetrical (thio)ureas through the "on-water"reaction of (thio)isocyanates with amines. Detailed mechanistic studies revealed that the physical nature and solubility of reagents in water are responsible for the observed reaction rate and selectivity. Significant efforts have been made to design a scalable process to achieve the "zero waste""water-mediated"protocol for the synthesis of (thio)ureas from (thio)isocyanates and amines. The decisive advantages of the process are the simple product isolation through filtration and the recycling of the water effluent. It also avoids the use of sensitive anhydrous reaction conditions and toxic volatile organic solvents. The developed process ensures that chemoselectivity and robustness and are successfully scaled-up to produce 100 g of isoproturon in high yield and purity. Green chemistry parameters such as process mass intensity, reaction mass efficiency, and molar efficiency values (with and without solvent) were calculated and compared.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3141-3152
Number of pages12
JournalOrganic Process Research and Development
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 18-11-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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