Oral candidal speciation, virulence and antifungal susceptibility in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Pratik N. Patel, Parul Sah, Chetana Chandrashekar, Sudha Vidyasagar, J. Venkata Rao, Mradul Tiwari, Raghu Radhakrishnan

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9 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives To determine the oral candidal carriage (OCC), activity of virulent factors and fluconazole susceptibility in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and investigate their association with HbA1c measurements. Materials and methods A cross sectional study was conducted on 100 diabetics and 100 healthy volunteers. The virulence was assessed by measuring the phospholipase activity and proteolysis index. Fluconazole susceptibility was performed using the gradient diffusion method. The OCC, virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility were correlated with patients’ HbA1c measurements. Results The OCC and candidal density carriage was significantly higher in diabetics. Candida albicans (C. albicans) was the most frequently isolated species followed by Candida tropicalis (C. tropicalis). Relatively uncommon species, Candida lusitaniae (C. lusitaniae) and Candida lipolytica (C. lipolytica) were isolated from the diabetics. Prevalence of virulence factor, proteinase, was greater in diabetic group (p < 0.05). Reduced fluconazole susceptibility was noted among the isolates from diabetics; however it was not statistically significant (p = 0.593). Except one, all the susceptible-dose dependent and resistant isolates were Candida no-albicans (C. non-albicans). Conclusion C. albicans remains the predominant pathogen in diabetics, although other species are on the rise. Compared to control group, the isolated species from T2DM group had higher proteinase activity. Resistance to fluconazole was considerably greater among the C. non-albicans isolates from T2DM group. These findings warrant effective treatment modalities to reduce the occurrence of oropharyngeal candidiasis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-19
Number of pages10
JournalDiabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Publication statusPublished - 01-03-2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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