Outcomes of Non-surgical Management of Zygomaticomaxillary Complex Fractures

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Introduction: With little evidence available in the literature, this study tries to clinically determine the efficiency and outcomes of non-surgical management of post-traumatic Zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures. Materials and Methods: One hundred and three patients with post-traumatic isolated ZMC fractures managed conservatively for various reasons were identified. The patients were classified based on the Zingg et al. criteria into Types A, B, and C. We evaluated the resolution of signs and symptoms of six standard parameters over 6 months—persistent pain, restriction in mouth opening, infraorbital nerve (ION) paresthesia, aesthetic deformity, infraorbital step deformity with associated tenderness on palpation, and ophthalmic status. The study variables were then statistically analyzed using Cochran’s Q test with an associated confidence interval of 95%. Results: A six-month follow-up revealed persisting residual deformities for all three groups. However, Type A and Type B showed significant improvement in pain reduction, mouth opening, and infraorbital nerve (ION) paresthesia. No significant improvement was noted in any of the groups for aesthetic deformity, infraorbital step deformity, and ophthalmic status. Type C, which had comminuted fracture patterns, exhibited significant defects in all the parameters. Significant inter-variable relationship between certain paired parameters was also observed. Conclusion: The Type A group is most suited for non-surgical management. Type B with a mono-bloc fracture is a crucial group that demands broader, long-term studies to extract a proper treatment protocol. Type C with severe fracture displacement validates surgical correction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)634-640
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 09-2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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