Parametric Study and Experimental Investigations of a Single Crank–Slotted Dual Lever Mechanism for MAV Flapping Actuation

Spoorthi Singh, Aravind Karthik Muralidharan, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishnan, Mohammad Zuber, Adi Azriff Basri, Norkhairunnisa Mazlan, Mohd Nizar Hamidon, Kamarul Arifin Ahmad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Insect RoboFlyers are interesting and active focuses of study but producing high-quality flapping robots that replicate insect flight is challenging., due to the dual requirement of both a sophisticated transmission mechanism with light weight and minimal intervening connections. This innovative mechanism was created to address the need for a producible structure that is small in size, small in mass, and has reduced design linkages. The proposed Single Crank-Slotted Dual Lever (SC-SDL) mechanism transforms rotational motion into specific angular motion at different velocities for each of its two strokes, i.e., the forward stroke and the return stroke. The discovery of a lag between the left and right lever motions in our design mechanism-I leads us to the conclusion that the flapping is asymmetric. To eliminate the position lag, the design has been altered, and a new design mechanism-II has been developed. Comparative kinematic analysis of both design systems is performed using simulations. Two-dimensional analysis of the base ornithopter configuration using ANSYS FLUENT yielded deeper insights regarding the influence of varying flapping frequency on critical flow metrics regarding adequate lift and thrust. For a flapping frequency of 24 Hz, adequate lift generation was achieved with minimal flow disturbances and wake interactions. Averaged dual wing estimations were made as part of the CFD study, which showed similar agreements. To validate the estimations, experimental tests were performed over the design mechanism-II configuration.

Original languageEnglish
Article number208
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 12-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Molecular Medicine


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