Parkinson's disease: Cause factors, measurable indicators, and early diagnosis

Shreya Bhat, U. Rajendra Acharya, Yuki Hagiwara, Nahid Dadmehr, Hojjat Adeli

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

112 Citations (Scopus)


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system caused due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons. It is classified under movement disorder as patients with PD present with tremor, rigidity, postural changes, and a decrease in spontaneous movements. Comorbidities including anxiety, depression, fatigue, and sleep disorders are observed prior to the diagnosis of PD. Gene mutations, exposure to toxic substances, and aging are considered as the causative factors of PD even though its genesis is unknown. This paper reviews PD etiologies, progression, and in particular measurable indicators of PD such as neuroimaging and electrophysiology modalities. In addition to gene therapy, neuroprotective, pharmacological, and neural transplantation treatments, researchers are actively aiming at identifying biological markers of PD with the goal of early diagnosis. Neuroimaging modalities used together with advanced machine learning techniques offer a promising path for the early detection and intervention in PD patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)234-241
Number of pages8
JournalComputers in Biology and Medicine
Publication statusPublished - 01-11-2018
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Health Informatics


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