Pharmacokinetic profile and hypoglycemic effect, after intraperitoneal injection of insulin and insulin encapsulated in niosomes were determined in diabetic rats. Niosomes (non-ionic surfactant vesicles) of different doses and different lipid compositions were prepared by lipid layer hydration method. Plasma samples were collected at specified time intervals and plasma concentration of insulin was determined by HPLC. Blood glucose level was estimated spectrophotometrically using commercial glucose assay kit. In vitro release and pharmacokinetic profile of niosomal formulation and free insulin were evaluated. Though there was a slight delay in the in vitro drug release due to cholesterol content in the niosomes, there was no difference between the two preparations when plasma levels were compared in vivo. Niosomes significantly reduced the blood glucose level in diabetic rats. Fall in blood glucose level was almost 92% of initial value. In case of the niosomal form the half-life of insulin was prolonged by 4 -5hr in contrast to 2hr for free drug. Niosomes maintained the plasma insulin level up to 12hr, but free drug was cleared quickly. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve for niosomal forms was, 26.07°± 0.99 mIU. hr/ml and for free insulin was 11.722 ± 1.10mIU. hr/ml. More than 80% of the drug was successfully encapsulated to give a formulation with sustained release characteristics. Entrapment efficiency increased with increasing lipid concentration and decreased with increasing drug concentration. The results showed that insulin entrapped in niosomes prolongs the existence of drug in the body therefore increasing its therapeutic value.
|Number of pages
|Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
|Published - 2000
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