Physicochemical interaction of rifampicin and ritonavir-lopinavir solid dispersion: an in-vitro and ex-vivo investigation

Athira R. Nair, Sai Krishna Anand Vullendula, Dani Lakshman Yarlagadda, Brahmam Bheemisetty, Swapnil J. Dengale, Krishnamurthy Bhat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To investigate the in-situ physicochemical interaction of Rifampicin and Ritonavir - Lopinavir Solid dispersion administered for the treatment of comorbid conditions i.e. Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Methods: pH-shift dissolution of Rifampicin (RIF) in presence of Ritonavir-Lopinavir solid dispersion (RL-SD) was carried out in USP phosphate buffer 6.8 and FaSSIF. Equilibrium and amorphous solubility were determined for the drugs. Pure drugs, their physical mixtures, and pH-shifted co-precipitated samples were characterized using DSC, PXRD, and FTIR. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to investigate drug-rich and drug-lean phases. In-vitro and ex-vivo flux studies were also carried out. Results: The results showed significant differences in the solubility and dissolution profiles of RTV and LOP in the presence of RIF, while RIF profile remained unchanged. Amorphicity, intermolecular interaction and aggregate formation in pH-shifted samples were revealed in DSC, XRD and FTIR analysis. Fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed the formation of drug-rich phase upon pH-shift. In-vitro and ex-vivo flux studies revealed significant reduction in the flux of all the drugs when studied in presence of second drug. Conclusion: RIF, RTV and LOP in presence of each other on pH-shift, results in co-precipitation in the amorphous form (miscible) which leads to reduction in the highest attainable degree of supersaturation. This reduction corresponds to the mole fraction of the RIF, RTV and LOP within the studied system. These findings suggest that the concomitant administration of these drugs may lead to physicochemical interactions and possible ineffective therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)192-205
Number of pages14
JournalDrug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Organic Chemistry


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