Basic fuchsine dye, a contaminant of emerging concern (CEC) is known for carcinogenicity and mutagenicity on humans and aquatic animals. Environmental persistence of basic fuchsine due to its structural stability is a concern due to its hideous effects on the eco-system. Among various methods of remediation, biological methods of dye adsorption are considered a potential tool and a self-sustainable approach of cleaning contaminated environments. In the current study, a non-pathogenic phyto-symbiotic bacteria, Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. Xiangfangensis strain KG216S isolated from Kaempferia pulchra L., was investigated for the reduction of basic fuchsine dye. One factor at a time (OFAT) studies revealed the optimal conditions for remediation was 20 mg/L of dye with 4 g/L of sucrose when introduced with 4 % v/v of the bacteria for 72 h. Adsorption kinetics demonstrated the biosorption design followed pseudo-first-order (PFO) kinetics as the R2value is 0.93, while the adsorption isotherms obey the Langmuir isotherm (R2value is 0.975). Analytical techniques like LCMS and FTIR analysis of bacterial biomass revealed the dye adsorption onto the bacterial surface. SEM-EDS analysis indicated the presence of Sodium (Na) and Chlorine (Cl) on the bacterial surface. Florescent microscopy of bacteria indicated duration-based dye accumulation and dye internalization and hence the current study is the first to report this phenomenon of biomitigation. In-silico toxicity assay predicted the dye as a probable causative agent of developmental toxicity. Cytogenotoxicity assay indicated reduced toxicity in comparison to the untreated sample. Through this study, we propose phyto-bacterial biosorption as a self-sustainable, eco-friendly approach to reduce the hideous effects on plants, humans, and the environment caused by the bioaccumulation of these carcinogenic dyes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Process Chemistry and Technology