Pork Lard Derived Biodiesel Production: Characterization, Engine Performance and Emission Analysis

Rohan Jeffry Robert, C. R. Girish

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The present work introduces a new methodology in the production of biodiesel from pork-lard waste having high cholesterol content and discusses its improved performance and emissions in a diesel engine. The traditional method of transesterification does not work with cholesterol due to the absence of triglycerides, therefore, the new improved method oxidizes cholesterol to fatty acids and then converts it to biodiesel ester. The procedure includes an acid reagent to break cholesterol and a renewable basic catalyst from seashells, for catalyzing the production. The acid-base system maintains the overall pH while yielding 95.6% conversion at the optimized conditions. The morphology of the produced catalyst was analyzed through FESEM and confirmed through XRD and EDX analyses. The physicochemical and ASTM properties were determined and the calorific value of the 20% biodiesel blend was found to be comparable with that of diesel. From the engine performance analysis, the thermal efficiency of the engine was observed to be higher and the exhaust emissions showed a maximum of 75% reduction in CO and 42.2% reduction in CO2emissions, proving it to be an environment-friendly fuel. Additionally, a 32.7% reduction in smoke opacity was also observed, thus decreasing the concentration of particulate matter in the atmosphere.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)951-970
Number of pages20
JournalNature Environment and Pollution Technology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 09-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science(all)


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