Introduction: Early childhood caries (ECC), which results in rapid involvement and progression of several teeth, is a growing concern in preschool children. It directly affects a child's overall health and quality of life. Aim: To assess the prevalence and determinants of ECC among children enrolled in Anganwadi centres in Bhilai city of Chhattisgarh. Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 children enrolled in Anganwadi of Bhilai. An oral examination and findings were recorded in 'dmft' using the WHO oral health assessment form for children 2013. The mothers' knowledge, attitude, and practice were determined by a professionally administered 10-item pre-tested short questionnaire with Cronbach's alpha of 0.86. The data were compiled and analysed using Microsoft Excel vs. 2013 and Statistical Package of Social Science (IBM SPSS version 23; Chicago Inc., USA). Results: The prevalence of ECC was 25.83%, out of which 13.33% in boys and 12.50% in girls. Children of middle school-educated mothers have 35.48% ECC, followed by high school and primary school, that is, 24.73 and 23.66, respectively. Mothers who assisted the children in tooth brushing have less prevalence of ECC (8.15%) as compared to non-assisted (17.8%) (P = 0.044). Conclusion: Although mothers' knowledge was appreciable regarding reasons for tooth decay, still 1/4 th of the children were found to be affected by ECC. This necessitates the importance of regular/periodic screening campaigns for the children, implementing institutional preventive programmes, and referral for children to secondary/tertiary healthcare centres.
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