The application of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) as base station (BS) is gaining popularity. In this paper, we consider maximization of the overall data rate by intelligent deployment of UAV BS in the downlink of a cellular system. We investigate a reinforcement learning (RL)-aided approach to optimize the position of flying BSs mounted on board UAVs to support a macro BS (MBS). We propose an algorithm to avoid collision between multiple UAVs undergoing exploratory movements and to restrict UAV BSs movement within a predefined area. Q-learning technique is used to optimize UAV BS position, where the reward is equal to sum of user equipment (UE) data rates. We consider a framework where the UAV BSs carry out exploratory movements in the beginning and exploitary movements in later stages to maximize the overall data rate. Our results show that a cellular system with three UAV BSs and one MBS serving 72 UE reaches 69.2% of the best possible data rate, which is identified by brute force search. Finally, the RL algorithm is compared with a K-means algorithm to study the need of accurate UE locations. Our results show that the RL algorithm outperforms the K-means clustering algorithm when the measure of imperfection is higher. The proposed algorithm can be made use of by a practical MBS–UAV BSs–UEs system to provide protection to UAV BSs while maximizing data rate.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Control and Systems Engineering
- Signal Processing
- Hardware and Architecture
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering