Risk factors for Non-Communicable diseases among rural adolescents: A school-based cross-sectional study

Maria Frances Bukelo, Deepthi Kiran, Goud B. Ramakrishna, Mario Joseph Bukelo, Pretesh Rohan Kiran, Vaman Kulkarni, Nithin Kumar, Tanuj Kanchan, B. Unnikrishnan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Non-communicable diseases (NCD) in recent times have attained a magnitude of epidemic proportion, with increasing number of adolescence being reported as obese. The risk factors for NCD such as obesity, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, dietary habits, etc. are inculcated during adolescence and continue to exist in adult life there by increasing the risk for hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. To assess the prevalence of risk factors for NCD among adolescents of a high school in rural Karnataka. Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional study 297 adolescents belonging to classes 8, 9 and 10 were assessed for the presence of risk factors for NCD using pretested questionnaire modified from NCD Risk Factor Survey Questionnaire, WHO-STEPS Questionnaire and Integrated Disease Surveillance Project Questionnaire. Results: The participants were aged between 12 and 17 years; mean age of the participants being 14.3 years. More than half (n=158, 53.2%) of the participants were boys, and a higher proportion (n=119, 40%) belonged to low socio-economic status class 5 according to B.G Prasad Scale. Based on International Physical Activity Questionnaire scoring protocol, 30.3% (n=90) participants were minimally active. The family history of hypertension and diabetes was seen among 55 (18.5%) and 28 (9.5%) of the participants respectively. Based on CDC 2000 standards 7 (2.4%) of the participants were overweight. The proportion of participants who were classified as having prehypertension, Stage I and Stage II hypertension was 20 (6.7%), 16 (5.4%) and 1 (0.3%) respectively. Inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables was seen in 235 (80.1%) and inappropriate dietary intake (fried foods, salted items more than 3 times/week) was seen in 166 (55.9%) of the participants. Conclusion: Several risk factors, both modifiable and non-modifiable are prevalent among the adolescents. Early detection of the risk factors and timely interventions are essential to reduce the burden of NCDs in future. Simple measures such as health education, nutritional education, and lifestyle modifications could go a long way in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with NCD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)284-287
Number of pages4
JournalAsian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 01-03-2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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