Mitochondria play a central role in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), bioenergetics linked with ATP production, fatty acids biosynthesis, calcium signaling, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and innate immune response. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection manipulates the host cellular machinery for its survival and replication in the host cell. The infectiaon causes perturbed the cellular metabolism that favours viral replication leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and chronic inflammation. By localizing to the mitochondria, SARS CoV proteins increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, perturbation of Ca2+ signaling, changes in mtDNA copy number, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial mass, and induction of mitophagy. These proteins also influence the fusion and fission kinetics, size, structure, and distribution of mitochondria in the infected host cells. This results in compromised bioenergetics, altered metabolism, and innate immune signaling, and hence can be a key player in determining the outcome of SARS-CoV infection. SARS-CoV infection contributes to stress and activates apoptotic pathways. This review summarizes how mitochondrial function and dynamics are affected by SARS-CoV and how the mitochondria-SARS-CoV interaction benefits viral survival and growth by evading innate host immunity. We also highlight how the SARS-CoV-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to post-COVID complications. Besides, a discussion on targeting virus-mitochondria interactions as a therapeutic strategy is presented.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology