Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage in the Young: An Institutional Registry Analysis

Girish Menon, Aparna Macharla, Siddharth Srinivasan, Sonin Santosh, Ashwin Pai, Rajesh Nair, Ajay Hegde

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) accounts for about 10-15% of all strokes. Generally, it is a disease of the elderly; worldwide, the incidence of SICH in the young is showing an increasing trend, especially in India and the Asian continent. An attempt is also made to analyze the presence of factors, which may predict the risk of SICH among young hypertensives. Methods: A six-year retrospective review of patients aged below 50 years who presented with SICH was included in the study. Patients with bleeds secondary to an identifiable cause such as tumor, trauma, vascular malformations, and coagulopathy-induced bleeds were excluded from the study. The outcome was measured at 90 days using the modified ranking scale, and predictors of outcome (good outcome modified ranking score (mRS): 0-3; poor outcome mRS: 4-6) were analyzed. Results: SICH in the young accounted for 28.4% of all intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients admitted during the study period (344/1210). The mean age of our male-dominant (78.5%) cohort was 42.9 ± 6.24 years, and the median Glasgow coma score (GCS) on presentation was 11 (IQR: 8-14). A prior history of hypertension (HTN) was obtained in 51.2% (176), and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was documented in 237 (68.9%) patients. The basal ganglia was the most common location of the bleed (62.2%). At 90 days, 200 patients (58.1%) had good outcome and 144 (41.9%) had poor outcome with an overall mortality of 75 (21.8%). Independent predictors of poor outcome were poor GCS, larger volume, and high serum creatinine values. Conclusion: The incidence of SICH among the young accounts for nearly 30% of admitted ICH. Poor outcome and mortality are high with HTN being the single most important modifiable risk factor in the cohort.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)502-506
Number of pages5
JournalAnnals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Volume26
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Neurology

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