Synergetic effect of binary, ternary and quaternary binders on microstructural, mechanical and durability aspects of EAF aggregate HPC system

Jagadisha, K. Balakrishna Rao, Gopinatha Nayak, Muralidhar Kamath, Adithya Tantri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The present study focuses on the combined effects of binder composites on the microstructural, mechanical, and durability characteristics of high-performance concrete that include manufactured sand (M-sand) and Electrical Arc Furnace slag (EAF) aggregate. Also, the influence of multi binders like Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS), mS (micro-silica) and nano-silica (nS) have been investigated. The ternary binder system is used to develop HPC mixtures with the effect of the mS in three levels 5%, 10%, and 15% and a quaternary binder system with 1% nS into the optimized ternary system containing 10% mS. Micro-characterization has revealed that the addition of micro-silica (mS) and nano-silica (nS) refined the compact morphology of the multi binder system. Natural aggregate is replaced at the level of 0%, 50%, and 100% with the EAF aggregate. Slump flow value decreased with an increase in micro and nano particles. Mechanical properties of HPC mixes with EAF, as well as a ternary binder without ns and quaternary binder with ns have shown better strength properties due to the combined effect of mS and nS as well as the stronger physical features of EAF slag aggregate. The qualitative tests have shown that the addition of a quaternary binder system has a significant positive effect on the permeable characteristics of HPC mixes. Deterioration due to MgSO4 solution and HCl acid is reduced due to the addition of ternary and quaternary binder composite. The drying shrinkage of HPC mixes was higher with the inclusion of micro and nanoparticles, but the same decreased with the addition of EAF aggregate. The present finding has revealed that the maximum utilization of EAF aggregate and M-Sand enhanced the durability of concrete.

Original languageEnglish
Article number134673
JournalConstruction and Building Materials
Publication statusPublished - 12-01-2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • General Materials Science


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