Objective: Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) knowledge and skills have been recommended as a core competency of healthcare professionals worldwide. However, EBM teaching and learning approaches is quite heterogeneous. Hence, we aimed to conduct a meta-synthesis to identify various teaching and learning aspects of EBM from the learners and instructors perspective. Methodology: This study followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Guidelines. A comprehensive search strategy was used to retrieve articles from PubMed/Medline and Embase from inception till June 2022. To find additional studies, bibliographic search of included studies, review articles, a random search in Google Scholar, Research Gate and Google were carried out. This review evaluated studies published in English language that explained the teaching and learning aspects of EBM among healthcare professionals and students. Result: A total of 41 out of 8139 studies were included in this study. Both learners and instructors preferred tutorials, lectures, short courses, and workshops on EBM as a teaching method. To continue learning and practicing EBM, instructors suggested curricular changes as well as continuing education programmes. Learners preferred to learn EBM by direct clinical practice along with peers. Blended learning, group activities, assignments, workshops, journal clubs, task based learning, didactic teaching, team based learning, problem based learning, case based learning, blended learning, flipped learning and E-learning were the identified pedagogical approaches for teaching EBM. Conclusion: Different pedagogical approaches are used for teaching EBM among healthcare professionals. Continuous education programs for skill development must be held on a regular basis to improve the instructors and learners competency in EBM. Learners and instructors preferred learning approach should be considered while designing EBM educational studies as it is a life-long self-directed learning process.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101280
JournalClinical Epidemiology and Global Health
Publication statusPublished - 01-05-2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Epidemiology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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