Test re-test reliability and validity of different visual acuity and stereoacuity charts used in preschool children

Diana Moganeswari, Jyothi Thomas, Krithica Srinivasan, George P. Jacob

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27 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Preschool vision screenings are cost effective ways to detect children with vision impairments. The use of any vision tests in children must be age appropriate, testable, repeatable and valid.Aim: To compare the test re-test reliability, sensitivity and specificity of different visual acuity and stereo acuity charts used in preschool children. Materials and Methods: Monocular visual acuity of 90 subjects (180 eyes) of age 36 to 71 months was assessed with HOTV, Lea and E-chart in a preschool located in a semi urban area, Manipal, Karnataka. After the vision assessment, stereo acuity was recorded using Frisby and Titmus stereo charts followed by comprehensive eye examination. Repeated measurements of visual acuity and stereo acuity were done one week after the initial assessment. Results: Mean age of children was 53± 10 months with equal gender distribution. Intra class correlation (ICC) of Lea, HOTV, E-chart, Frisby and Titmus charts were 0.96, 0.99, 0.92, 1.0 and 1.0 respectively. The area under receiver operating curve (ROC) for Lea and E-chart was 0.892 and 0.776. HOTV was considered as the gold standard as it showed the least difference on repeated measurements. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of E-chart was 99, 15, 45, 94 and 21.8 percent, and Lea was 93, 56, 59 and 92 percent. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of Frisby was 75, 27, 9, 92 percent were as of Titmus was 75, 13, 8 and 85 percent respectively. Conclusion: HOTV chart can be used as the gold standard for measuring visual acuity of pre-schoolers in a semi urban area. Lea chart can be used in the absence of HOTV chart. Frisby and Titmus charts are good screening tools, but with poor diagnostic criteria.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)NC01-NC05
JournalJournal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 01-11-2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Biochemistry


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