The Impact of Sex Hormones on the Periodontium During a Woman’s Lifetime: a Concise-Review Update

Akanksha Kidiyur Sathish, Jothi Varghese, Aldridge Jose Fernandes

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose of Review: In the field of periodontology, numerous studies have been conducted to observe the effects of sex hormones on the periodontal tissues and the oral mucosa. The balance in the circulating hormonal levels in the female body ensures proper homeostasis of the periodontium. Therefore, this literature review focuses on the more recent concepts related to changes in the endogenous and exogenous female hormones on the periodontal health in the lifetime of a woman. Recent Findings: Previous studies have reported severe gingival inflammation in women using oral contraceptives. But present day oral contraceptives have decreased dosages in contrast to the older formulations and therefore only mildly affect the periodontium with the majority reporting lack of gingival inflammation. Periodontal treatment strategies for each stage in a woman’s life is also described in this review, and research pertaining to periodontal therapy during pregnancy has shown conflicting results in terms of reducing the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Summary: The changes seen in the periodontium seen in each milestone of a woman’s life correlates to the fluctuating levels in the female sex hormones. Maintaining oral health during the peak of hormone release such as pregnancy helps alleviate the symptoms of periodontal disease as well as reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, although studies report conflicting results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)146-156
Number of pages11
JournalCurrent Oral Health Reports
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 12-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Immunology and Microbiology (miscellaneous)


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