The Nuremberg Code and the history of its disapprobation

Pratiksha Deodhar, K. Girish Pai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The following article gives a brief introduction to the background of The Nuremberg Code and its conception followed by its application in the formation of various regulations regarding research ethics and medical experimentation involving human volunteers. The article also showcases the controversies related to the code, (e.g: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, The Willowbrook School case, Jessie Gelsinger case, etc.) which highlights the unjust and racist background in the world of research. These examples also highlight the repercussions of disobeying the code. The procedure of current informed consent, its loopholes and drawbacks have been showcased with a few suggestions for improvement of the process. Landmark documents like Henry Beecher’s article of 1966, The Belmont Report, ICCPR and The declaration of Helsinki have been mentioned with their derivation from the code and their contribution in research ethics. From the history of the code to the more recent cases, the article also covers the controversial case of CIA’s programme of enhanced interrogative techniques. As a whole, the journey of the Nuremberg Code from the point of its conception, its development and its derivations into various regulations to the present has been captured.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8-15
Number of pages8
JournalPharma Times
Issue number8-9
Publication statusPublished - 01-08-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)


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