The paracondylar skull base: Anatomical variants and their clinical implications

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4 Citations (Scopus)


Aim: The knowledge of the vasculature around the paracondylar region is important in neurosurgical procedures such as the paracondylar and lateral supracondylar approaches. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of paracondylar emissary foramina in the adult skull bases and to study the morphology of condylar canals and hypoglossal canals. Material and Methods: The present study included 48 adult human skulls that were obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory of our institution. The paracondylar region was macroscopically observed for the variant foramina, canals and grooves. Results: It was observed that the paracondylar emissary foramen was present in 16 skulls (33.3%). The foramen was found bilaterally in 7 skulls (14.6%) and unilaterally in 9 skulls (18.7%). The hypoglossal canal was single in 35 (72.9%) skulls, double in 11 skulls (22.9%), and triple in 2 skulls (4.2%). The paracondylar process (2.1%) and the paracondylar groove (2.1%) were seen in 1 skull each. The posterior condylar canal was found to be patent in 19 (39.6%) skulls. Conclusion: The present study observed that, the paracondylar emissary vein is not rare in occurrence as it is observed in 33.3% of cases. The identification of the paracondylar emissary veins and accessory vessels is important to avoid dangerous bleeding during the surgery. The morphological knowledge of the foramina around the paracondylar region is enlightening to the chiropractors, neurosurgeons and radiologists.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)844-849
Number of pages6
JournalTurkish Neurosurgery
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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