Trust but verify: An analysis of redundant publications from two major psychiatry journals in India

Vikas Menon, Natarajan Varadharajan, Samir Praharaj, Shahul Ameen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: No analysis of redundant or duplicate publications, deemed unethical and unscientific, has been undertaken in psychiatric literature. Aim: To analyze the proportion and patterns of redundant publications associated with index articles published in two major Indian psychiatry journals. Methods: Index articles were original papers published in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry and the Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine between 2015 and 2017. Using a systematic search strategy that combined author names and article keywords, we combed the literature to identify and characterize redundant publications related to these index articles. Redundant publications were classified into one of the following categories using a priori definitions: dual, suspected dual, salami slicing, meat extender, and extended sample publication. Results: From 324 index articles screened, a total of 27 articles (8.4%) were identified to have 32 associated redundant publications of the following types: dual (n = 3), suspected dual (n = 2), salami slicing (n = 22), meat extender (n = 3), and extended sample publication (n = 2). A majority of the redundant articles (n = 23, 71.9%) failed to clearly cross-reference the prior publication(s). We also identified nine non-redundant but related publications with no proper cross-referencing in five of them. Conclusion: Redundant publications are a common practice in the psychiatry journals screened. Salami slicing is the most common form of redundancy, with no proper cross-referencing in most cases. Concerted efforts are needed to detect and deal with this concerning practice that undermines both science and ethics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)342-348
Number of pages7
JournalIndian Journal of Psychiatry
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 01-07-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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