Tumor Budding Assessment with Cytokeratin and Its Significance in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas

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There is a need for novel prognostic parameters in assessing laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Tumor budding is an instrumental parameter, which has hardly been studied before in this organ. This study aimed to assess tumor budding in LSCCs with routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain as well as cytokeratin (CK) immunohistochemistry (IHC). Objectives were to compare the effectiveness of both these methods to assess tumor budding, to investigate the association of tumor budding and clinicopathologic features, and to determine the prognostic significance of tumor budding in LSCCs. Fifty laryngectomy specimens were included. Tumor budding was counted (20x) on slides stained with IHC–CK, and highest count per slide was noted. The cases were classified as positive (> 1 buds) or negative (no buds present). The budding index was categorized as low (< 5 buds) or high (> 5 buds). Tumor budding on H&E was absent, low and high grade in 28%, 30% and 42% cases respectively, when compared to CK-IHC in 17%, 24% and 59% of cases, respectively. Presence of lymphoplasmacytic infiltration significantly correlated with tumor budding and higher grade. Transglottic location of tumor and pT stage was associated with high budding. Presence of lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate significantly correlated with worse prognosis. Tumor budding, an easily assessable, inexpensive histopathologic parameter has seldom been studied in LSCCs. Presence of lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate in routine preoperative biopsy reporting could be useful in prognostication. CK-IHC is helpful to detect especially cases with low-grade tumor budding.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIndian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Publication statusPublished - 12-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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