Unlocking the power of MXenes – Crafting a 2D nanoplatform for tomorrow: Synthesis, functionalization, stability, and biomedical applications

Soji Soman, Sanjay Kulkarni, Abhijeet Pandey, Namdev Dhas, Krishnaraj Somyaji Shirur, Rajashree S. Gude, Shimoga M. Vidya, Sneha Nayak, Sajan Daniel George, Srinivas Mutalik

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The rapid advancement of theranostic nanoplatforms has sparked interest in the development of diverse inorganic nanocarriers with multifunctional properties for biomedical applications. MXenes are new inorganic nanomaterials with unique compositional, structural, and physicochemical characteristics. MXenes have been broadly used in diverse applications ranging from chemical, optical, electronic, and mechanical to biomedical fields. MXenes have excellent prospects for biological applications due to their large surface area and desirable near-infrared (NIR) absorption. Surface functionalization of MXenes with appropriate functionalization agents improves in vivo efficiency, minimises toxicity, increases circulation time, and improves colloidal stability. This review outlines the recent development of MXenes in biomedicines, surface modification techniques, synthesis strategies, and conjugation chemistry. It focuses on the major biomedical applications of MXenes, such as photothermal, theranostic, biosensing, and antibacterial activities. The last section of the article discusses the biosafety and stability characteristics of MXenes, along with addressing the challenges related to surface modification and clinical translation of 2D MXenes for biomedical applications. If the existing essential difficulties and obstacles are effectively addressed, 2D MXene-based nanosystems are predicted to have extensive applications in the theranostics of biomedicine.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107711
JournalMaterials Today Communications
Publication statusPublished - 03-2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Materials Chemistry


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