Upper-crossed syndrome and disability in shoulder adhesive capsulitis

Aishwarya Jaideep, Charu Eapen, Ashish John Prabhakar, Vivekbhai Patel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Study design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Introduction: Adhesive capsulitis (AC) is a long-standing condition with varying extents of disability seen among patients. The role of postural manifestations and contractile tissue involvement in this condition is poorly understood and yet to be explored. Purpose: This study aimed to analyze if individuals with adhesive capsulitis demonstrated the characteristics of an upper crossed syndrome (UCS) postural manifestation and whether or not its presence affected the extent of disability experienced by this population. Methods: Sixty-five individuals with AC were assessed for the presence of UCS. Scapular muscle strength and length alterations, forward head posture (FHP), and disability were assessed and compared between those with and without UCS. Paired T test and an independent T test were utilized to compare means within and between these groups, respectively, while non-parametric measures were utilized for their skewed counterparts. Phi coefficient (φ) was used to determine the strength of association between the descriptive patient characteristics. The correlation between symptom duration and degree of postural involvement was analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: 43.1% of the study population demonstrated UCS and 80% FHP with a significant negative correlation between Cranio Vertebral Angle and chronicity of AC (r = −0.27). Individuals with AC demonstrated significantly decreased scapular muscle strength (p = <.001) and pectoralis minor length on the affected side (p = .03). No differences were seen between groups with and without UCS. The mean SPADI scores between groups demonstrated a more significant level of perceived pain and disability in individuals with UCS (p = .049). Conclusions: As seen in UCS, individuals with AC demonstrated alterations in movement patterns and posture. UCS was seen to contribute towards the existing disability in AC. This study suggests a careful evaluation and intervention based on these findings to document its effect on pain and dysfunction in AC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)282-290
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Publication statusPublished - 10-2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Complementary and Manual Therapy
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation
  • Complementary and alternative medicine


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