YOLOv5s-CAM: A Deep Learning Model for Automated Detection and Classification for types of Intracranial Hematoma in CT Images

V. Vidhya, U. Raghavendra, Anjan Gudigar, Sudipta Basak, Sankalp Mallappa, Ajay Hegde, Girish R. Menon, Prabal Datta Barua, Massimo Salvi, Edward J. Ciaccio, Filippo Molinari, U. Rajendra Acharya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Intracranial hematoma due to traumatic brain injury is a serious health concern with rates of morbidity and mortality that are increasing worldwide. Manual identification is slow, subject to observer variabilities, and the existing automated techniques for intracranial hematoma detection in non-contrast computed tomography images cannot effectively detect multiple lesions of irregular sizes and shapes. Therefore, a computer-aided system using different window settings, YOLOv5s, cascaded attention module, and spatial pyramid pooling-fast is proposed to detect hematoma types, namely acute intraparenchymal, intraventricular, subdural, epidural, subarachnoid, and chronic subdural. Firstly, the computed tomography images are pre-processed using a window-based stacking approach wherein a three-channel image is generated by stacking grayscale images obtained with the aid of multiple window settings, i.e, brain, bone, and subdural. Secondly, a cascaded attention module is constructed in the neck of the YOLOv5s model to improve its detection performance by placing the convolution block attention module in serial with the efficient channel attention module. The cascaded attention module enriches the feature representation of various hematoma types in complex backgrounds especially when they are small and inconspicuous. The spatial pyramid pooling is replaced by a spatial pyramid pooling-fast to reduce the computational parameters and accelerate the feature fusion ability. The proposed deep learning model is trained, validated, and tested with 15,921 images from the brain haemorrhage extended dataset and it achieved overall precision, recall, F1-score, and mean average precision at 0.5, and mean average precision at 0.5:0.95 of 0.935, 0.908, 0.921, 0.943 and 0.65 respectively. The experimental results show that in comparison to the original YOLOv5s model and state-of-the-art methods, the model was able to localize and classify the acute or chronic instances of five hematoma subtypes in an individual image with improved precision and recall values. Hence the proposed system can be used in hospitals for the early and accurate detection of hematoma.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)141309-141328
Number of pages20
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Computer Science
  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering


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